Thursday, 1 December 2011

Open Questions or Closed Questions?

Question and Answer Technique is used in a number of different ways when teaching learner drivers. The aim of this article is to explore how Q&A can be used to find out what the pupil knows, what the pupil doesn’t know and how to construct effective questions to achieve this.

For the purposes of this article I will classify pupils into two groups:

Partly trained – a pupil who is following a course of lessons but still learning new subjects

Trained – a pupil who has followed a course of lessons and is now reviewing and developing topics and skills already learned.

The main times when we use Q&A can be broken down as follows:


Nearly every driving lesson starts with a short Q&A session to check the pupil’s knowledge of what was covered on their previous lesson.

With a partly trained pupil the aim is to see how much they have remembered from the last lesson and highlight skills the pupil already has that can be used and developed within the new topic about to be covered. For example, if a pupil covered emerging at T junctions in his/her last lesson and the topic for the current lesson is crossroads, then the pupil should have a good knowledge of using the MSPSL routine. Recap questions could be as follows:

‘Before I explain crossroads, I would like to ask you a few questions to establish your knowledge of T junctions covered on your last lesson.
Imagine you were approaching a T-junction to turn right, take me through the routine you would use on approach?
When you reach the give way line, where would you be looking and what would you be looking for?
If your zone of vision was blocked by parked cars, explain to me how you would use clutch control to move the car forward slowly?
Who has priority at an unmarked junction?
What is the difference between an open and a closed junction and how does this affect your speed of approach?'

With a trained pupil where the objective is to review and improve a topic already covered, then the Recap should assess the pupil’s current knowledge of that subject. If we take crossroads again, suitable questions could be as follows:

'Before we move off, I would like to ask you a few questions to check your current knowledge of Crossroads.
Imagine you are approaching a crossroads on a minor road to follow the road ahead. Take me through the routine you would use on approach?
If it was a closed junction and your view of the junction was obscured, how would this affect your speed of approach?
If you need to pause or stop at the give way line, when would you select first gear?
What does coasting mean and why should it be avoided?
If you have stopped at the give way line at a crossroads, where should you be looking and what should you be looking for?
If your view of the junction was blocked by parked vehicles, explain to me how you would move forward slowly so that you could see it was safe to emerge?
When turning right form a major road, where do you position the car on approach?
When emerging left at a crossroads, where should you position the car as you approach the give way line?
What vulnerable road users do you need to be especially aware of when negotiating crossroads?
When turning right from a major road to a minor one, how do you assess a safe gap in the oncoming traffic?
Why is it dangerous to cut a corner when turning right major to minor and do you have a reference point to check your point of turn?'

How you ask the question will ultimately determine what answer you get.

As an initial example let’s presume that you want to know if the pupil knows how to use progressive braking.
You could say:
How do you use the brake? But the pupil could say: With my right foot.
Or you could say:
Do you know what progressive braking is? But here the pupil could reply simply: Yes.
But if you said:
What does progressive braking mean? Then the pupil will either give you the answer or say they don’t know.

A good way to start a question is to use What? Why? Which? Where? When? or How?
For example:
Which mirrors do you check before signalling right?
Why is it important to bring the clutch up slowly when moving off?
Where should you position your vehicle when turning right at a T-junction?
When should you signal if you were taking the second road on the left?
How do you assess a safe gap in the oncoming traffic when turning right (major to minor)?

Another useful technique is to try to amalgamate several questions into one. For example if you were checking a pupil’s knowledge of the MSPSL routine when turning right from a major road, you could ask a question on each element such as:
When turning right from a major road to a minor road which mirrors would you check?
When would you signal?
Where would you position your vehicle?
Etc., etc., etc………

However, this could all be amalgamated as follows:
Take me through the routine you would use when turning right from a major road to a minor road?
Here, with one question the pupil has to describe the whole routine to you. You could then ask supplementary questions to clarify any particular point. For example, if the pupil starts by saying: ‘I would check my mirrors’ you could then ask: ‘which mirrors and in what order?’ Or if he said: ‘I would position my vehicle just left of the centre line’ You could ask: ‘What reference point do you have to check this?’

Another useful technique is to start a question with a short description to ensure that the mental picture in the pupil’s mind is the same as yours. For example:

Imagine you are driving down a major road at 30 mph in 4th gear and I ask you to take the next road on the left, take me through the routine you would use on approach?

This descriptive approach can then continue as you ask further questions. For example:

Ahead of you is a pedestrian on the left hand pavement who looks as if he/she is about to cross the road, how will this affect your speed of approach?

With a trained pupil the Recap questions should be more challenging as the pupil should have a good knowledge of the topic to be covered. For example, if you were reviewing Emerging and you wanted to check the pupil’s approach routine with regards to signalling, compare the following questions:

After checking your mirrors, what do you need to do next? - this tells you very little other than if the pupil is familiar with the MSM routine.

After checking your mirrors, how far from the junction would you usually signal? - this question will give you a little more information about the pupil’s knowledge, but consider the following question:

After checking your mirrors what do you look for ahead of you to ensure that your signal is properly timed? - this last question really tests the pupil’s knowledge. It takes into account the fact that your command for emerging is ‘at the end of the road turn left/right, and so there could be a minor left or right turn before the end of the road which would alter the timing of the signal.

Prompting Q&A

This form of Q&A, is used mostly with a beginner or partly trained pupil to bridge the gap between full control and independence. Let’s use Moving off and stopping as an example. After the briefing you will be controlling the pupil on the move using full talkthrough. After the pupil can perform this exercise under your control then you need to reduce your instruction. However, to expect a pupil to move from being under your full control to suddenly doing the exercise on their own is too big a leap, so we need a bridge to lead them from one to the other and this is called ‘prompting’.

Full talkthrough ---------------  Prompting Q&A --------------- Independence

The best way to do this is to take selected commands from the talkthrough and change them into questions putting what, why, which, when, where or how at the beginning. Compare the following talkthrough and prompting for moving off which should be read from the bottom up:

                        Talkthrough                                                         Prompting
  • check mirrors, clutch gently up, gently on gas                          What is your normal driving position?
  • Steer ¼ turn to right, ½ turn to left, ¼ turn to right                             How much do you need to steer?
  • Clutch gently up until car starts to move, keep feet still
  • Release the handbrake                                                                      Move off when you are ready
  • Check interior mirror, right mirror & right blind spot again
  • Indicate up right                                                                                Do you need to indicate?
  • Check you left blind spot, left exterior mirror,              Where are you looking before you move off?
             interior mirror,  forward, right exterior mirror & right blind spot
  • Gently clutch up until engine note dips slightly, keep both feet still
  • Set gas with your right foot, keep foot still
  • Hand back on steering wheel
  • Push lever left and forward to select 1st gear                                    Prepare the car to move
  • Left hand on gear lever palm towards me
  • Clutch down hold it down
  • Left foot cover clutch
  • Both hands on steering wheel at 10 - 2 position
  • Start the engine                                                                              Carry out your safety precautions and start the engine
  • Check handbrake is on and the gear lever is in neutral

Pro-Active Q&A

This form of Q&A is most effective with a trained pupil on the move, by using targeted questions to expose gaps in the pupil’s knowledge in order to highlight possible faults. The result is that you can either stop the faults from occurring or reduce their effect. To illustrate this, look at the following examples for approaching and emerging at a closed T junction to turn right: (to ensure full understanding by the reader a descriptive style has been used for the pupil’s replies. In real life, the pupil’s response may be in his/her actions rather than words).

Instructor: 'Is this an open or closed junction?'
Pupil: 'Closed.'
Instructor: 'How will that affect your speed of approach?'
Pupil: 'I will need to slow down more and pause at the give-way line.'
Instructor: 'Where are you going to position the car?'
Pupil: 'Just left of the centre line.'
Instructor: 'Does the centre line stay straight?'
Pupil: 'No, it curves to the right.'
Instructor: 'How will you deal with this?'
Pupil: 'I usually keep my wheels straight on approach to turn right.'
Instructor: 'Steer slightly to the right as you approach the give-way line.'

Here the pro-active Q&A managed to expose a potential positioning fault before it happened and so give the opportunity for the instructor to control it.

The secret to effective pro-active Q&A is to make an early assessment of the road ahead in relation to the subject. In the example given above, the instructor noticed that the centre line curved to the right just before the give-way line and wanted to know how the pupil would react to this.

Fault Assessment Q&A

This form of Q&A is once again used mainly with a trained pupil and is aimed at finding out why a fault has happened.

I intend to deal fully with Fault Assessment (Core Competencies) in my next article but as a general rule Never Ask a Question to Identify a Fault. This should always be a statement of what the pupil has done wrong. However, once the fault has been identified then we need to find the gap in the pupil’s knowledge and a good way to do this is to ask a question to cover the analysis and a question to cover the rectification (remedial action). As an example, consider the following:

Pupil stops too early as he approaches a give-way line.
Instructor: 'You have stopped too early (identification statement), how does this affect your vision into the new road? (analysis question)'
Pupil: 'My view is partially blocked.'
Instructor: 'What reference point do you use to ensure you have stopped at the give -way line?'
Pupil: 'I try to get the front of the car just behind the double white line.'
Instructor: 'Can you see the end of the bonnet on this car? (rectification question)'
Pupil: 'No, I just try to guess where it is?'
Instructor: 'Next time look for the give-way lines to appear just under your right exterior mirror before stopping.'

There are many more examples of how to use effective Q&A in my book “The What, Why and How of Instructional Technique for Driving Instructors”. It uses teaching scenarios detailing the interaction between instructor and pupil as if you were sitting in the back of a car listening to a lesson being delivered, based around the subjects currently used in the part 3 test of instructional ability.

The What, Why and How of Instructional Technique for Driving Instructors is available to order online at 

Tuesday, 18 October 2011

The Myth of the ‘International Driving Licence’

I am sure many driving instructors have had calls form prospective clients who say that they have been driving (legally without L plates) on an ‘International Driving Licence’ and now need to obtain a full British car licence to comply with residency conditions? The caller often adds that they are an experienced driver and only need a few lessons to prepare for the test.

Now I don’t pretend to be an expert in the area of driving licence regulations, so this article this article is more about seeking clarification rather than giving advice.

The first thing to say of course, is that there is no such thing as an ‘International Driving Licence’ and what the client is usually referring to is an  International Driving Permit which, as far as I am aware is available for the equivalent of a few pounds and production of a few documents such as a full licence from whatever country it was issued. It is essentially a multiple language translation of the holders existing driving licence. In other words, not an indication of the permit holders driving standard.

The Direct.Gov website does give some useful advice for driving in Great Britain as a visitor or new resident  . However, this only gives basic guidance from the licence holder’s point of view. From the ADI’s point of view it throws up more questions than it answers.

At this stage, I should point out that I have no problems with the worldwide agreements for visitors to foreign countries being able to drive using their full licence. I myself have, over the years, enjoyed the freedom to drive in various European countries.

The main problems seem to centre on drivers who fall into the DVLA’s category of full licence holders from all other countries (those outside the EEC, Northern Ireland etc.) and especially the question of ‘Residency’. Here it states: ‘Provided your full licence remains valid, you can drive any category of small vehicle shown on your licence for up to 12 months from the time you became resident. To ensure continuous driving entitlement a provisional GB licence must be obtained and a driving test past before the 12-month period elapses. If you obtain a provisional licence during this period you are not subject to provisional licence conditions.’

As ADI’s can often be the first port of call for clients in this category looking for advice, it would be useful if DVLA could issue a guide to help us.

How do we establish the validity of foreign licences without a legally authorised translation which includes explanation of any endorsements etc?

Should an international driving permit be taken as verification that the full licence is valid and legal?

Is it easily established when residency starts?

If a client takes a driving test during the 12 months and fails it, can he still legally drive on his full foreign licence until the 12 months expires?

If we assess one of these clients as a danger to other road users who is not fit to drive unaccompanied, apart from advising the client, what procedures should we follow?

One answer for ADI’s is of course to only accept clients with a valid GB provisional driving licence who, whilst they are with us, comply with provisional licence conditions. However, this does not address the underlying problems of allowing a minority of unsafe drivers onto Britain’s roads.

 Could it be an idea that as part of a person’s residency application, a driving assessment is required (which could be carried out by an ADI) to establish minimum safety standards for driving without L-plates until a full GB licence is obtained?

EEC licences, on the face of it, seem much more straightforward. However, this now includes 25 countries and more applying join. Oh, and we mustn’t forget EEA (European Economic Area) countries which includes Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. As ADI’s sometimes get calls from clients who want a few lessons to get used to the finer points of driving on the left, how are we supposed to check these foreign licences in foreign languages are valid and what any endorsements mean etc? Then there is the more worrying call from parents who are going to let the new Au Pair use their 4x4 to pick up the children from school and could we just assess their driving standard?

Another area, which seems confusing, comes under the heading of ‘Students from a Non-Community Country’. Here it states, in the DVLA’s guidance, that students who hold a non-community licence or an international driving permit may drive here for up to 12 months. Surely that should read and an international driving permit.

Confused yet?  Surely, this is a prime subject for inclusion as module for the DSA’s new continuing professional development programme.

In conclusion, this article boils down to the following main points:
  • To make it clear to driving instructors that there is no such thing as an 'international driving licence'
  • Ask the question about how ADI's are supposed to check the validity of foreign licences?
  • Highlight what seems to be a very big loophole in the law surrounding residency and the 12-month rule for obtaining a full licence. If a candidate fails a British driving test, say after six months of becoming resident, can it be legal to continue driving without provisional licence conditions for another six months when the DSA may have recorded, in some cases, that this is a dangerous driver?
Lastly, let us spare a thought for the poor examiners who are expected to test drivers, driving legally on foreign licences, where in some cases there is no guarantee of even the basic minimum standards and if they are driving their own cars, no dual controls either! I am sure a lot of ADI’s will have stories, whilst waiting to see if their pupil has passed the test, of seeing an unaccompanied driver who has obviously failed, remove their L-plates and drive off. How do we explain this to our pupils?

Thursday, 13 October 2011

Are you ready to meet the pupil from hell?

 The national pass rate for the part 3 test of instructional ability to become and approved driving instructor is historically very low. One of the main reasons for this is that candidates are just not prepared for what actually happens during the examination.

Although teaching real pupils will give you valuable experience and confidence, it does not always prepare you for what will happen in the examination. Some of the main differences between teaching a real pupil and the ‘role play’ pupil played by the examiner can be summed up as follows:
  • A real pupil will always try to get things right during a lesson so will often not highlight weaknesses in your instruction. The examiner is not trying to get things right as he/she needs to assess your ability to correct driving errors.
  • With a real pupil a lesson usually lasts one hour and it may take several lessons before real progress on a chosen subject can be measured. In the instructional ability test each phase or lesson only lasts 30 minutes, but you should aim to see a noticeable improvement during that short amount of time.

The examiner tests examination candidates by role playing a pupil who continually makes mistakes. One way to describe the sort of ‘role play’ pupil you can expect to meet in the examination is to take all the worst bits of all the pupils you may have taught and to put them together to produce ‘the pupil from hell!’ If you can control this pupil, then you have nothing to fear. So what is the secret of success?

Well first of all you need ‘The Knowledge’. Some of this would have been gained by passing the part 1 test of Theory and Hazard Perception. The task now is to be able to apply this in a practical way and my book The What, Why & How of Instructional Technique for Driving Instructors teaches you how.

For this article, I will concentrate on the phase 1 part of the examination.

Phase 1: The Beginner or Partly Trained Pupil

Recap and Briefing

During the phase 1 part of the examination candidates are required to teach a new subject to a pupil who is either classed as a beginner or partly trained pupil. It is customary to start the lesson with a few Recap questions and then give a short briefing. My top tips are for a successful briefing are:
  • Don’t try to give a theory lesson but talk from a drivers point of view
  • Be practical - tell the pupil what he/she has to do, how and why in a way that they will understand
  • Make a briefing plan to ensure you include all the ‘key points’ listed on the left hand side of the relevant marking sheet. For example, for Pedestrian Crossings and Use of Signals the key points are: MSM, Speed on approach, Stop when necessary, Inviting pedestrians to cross, Overtaking on approach, Signals by indicator, Signals by arm, Signals – timing and Unnecessary signals.
  • Include any relevant reference points etc. and apart from the Controls lesson, make sure the briefing does not exceed 10 minutes.

Talkthrough – Prompting – Independence

After the briefing comes the practical part. If you take off the time needed for the recap, briefing and cockpit drill, then this part will only last between 15 – 20 minutes. During this short amount of time the pupil needs to be controlled until they have learned how to do the chosen subject and, if time allows, can try to perform this independently. To do this it is customary to use a talkthrough and examples for all the main examination subjects are included in my book. A talkthrough is basically:
  • a series of commands that controls the pupil. A “do this, do that” approach which I guess in the military would be called a drill.
  • It is not a sort of briefing on the move and it is not a commentary.
  • You are verbally driving the car from the passenger seat and thus controlling the pupil’s body to do it, although the pupil is largely unaware of this.

The talkthrough routines need to be learned and practiced until they can be given confidently and accurately from memory and will need to be adapted to whatever road situation is happening at the time. While you are giving the talkthrough the examiner will disrupt this by making faults (more on this later) which will test your control.

Next comes the prompting phase. Basically various commands from the talkthrough are now changed into carefully timed questions to encourage more independence. This will confirm that some progress has been made. If this is achieved and if there is any time left towards the end of the phase then the pupil should be encouraged to try the exercise independently. Yes, all this in 20 minutes!

The Core Competencies

Throughout the phase, the examiner will be making faults and how the candidate deals with these will ultimately decide success or failure. For each fault committed the examiner will expect an identification, analysis and remedy – these are called the core competencies. My book gives numerous practical examples of how this should be done and also has a dedicated section on fault assessment. My top tips are:
  • Watch the pupil closely – if you are looking the faults are usually obvious.
  • Identify each fault the moment it happens with a simple statement of what is wrong.
  • Analyse and remedy the fault as soon as it is safe to do so.
  • Keep your fault assessment short and to the point.
  • Learn the key points on the left hand side of the part 3 marking sheets as the examiner will base his faults around these.
  • Use the key points as a ‘mental checklist’ of faults you have dealt with and faults you are still looking for.

Your overall grading is usually based on the lowest core competency mark, so if you were given a 4 for identification, 3 for analysis and 4 for remedial action, your grade would be 3. For this reason it is vital to give all three parts for each fault committed. You must score a minimum of grade 4 in both phases to qualify.

The What, Why and How of Instructional Technique for Driving Instructors is available to order online at
Price £27.00 plus £2.00 (postage and packing)